About Instruments Today No. 229
Claire Lin, Ming-Hua Shiao
Applications of Medial Imaging Diagnosis and Associated Intervention to Bone Tumor and Other Disease
Applications of medial imaging plays an important role on disease diagnosis including Xray, ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Image-guided biopsy and associated treatment are also usded for many body parts including musculoskeletal system. This article will introduce the principle and clinical applications by presenting clinical simulation of case with bone tumor. We will also mention basic concepts of clinical accplication of artificial intelligence (AI) and radiomics in medical imaging.
Chun-Yen Cheng, Fang-Hsu Chen, I-Lin Lu
With the development of proteomics and precision medicine, it is increasingly using protein targets for disease diagnosis and prediction. Two often-in-use methods are electrophoresis, which is time-consuming and with lower accuracy, and conjugation of antigen and antibody, which can identify specific proteins, yet, is a bit expensive for each detection. Alternatively, a mass spectrometer (MS) can provide the information of mass to charge ratio (m/z), such that recent MS techniques have been accordingly applied in clinical, microbes, food safety, and drug development. Here, we will introduce a MS method for the detection of large, and intact biological molecules. Over the variety of mass spectrometers, we will discuss all its instrumentation via the motion of in-trap charged particles. Usually, it is not easy to ionize the intact protein, for its large mass and complicated structure. Thus, protein research indirectly uses enzyme digestion to cut protein into peptide pieces for traditional MS analysis. Here, for the direct detection of intact proteins, the method of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) is tactically arranged nearby the inside of the ion trap. Together with one innovative charge detector, phase-modulated spectrometry can be introduced for intact molecular ion analysis.
Chung-Er Huang, Sheng-Wen Chen, Kuan-Yeh Huang
Cancer causes the most death in Taiwan. The mortality rate is correlated to the cancer stage. The earlier cancer diagnosed is the higher patient survival rate. Major cancer diagnosis methods are biopsy and image examination. The sensitivity of tumor marker detection for cancer diagnosis is very low. It needs to combine with image examination. However, these methods are limited in early cancer diagnosis. In the past decade, the liquid biopsy development is growth. According to the cancer cells or molecules detected in the blood, it helps to diagnose cancer earlier. Herein, we introduce a liquid biopsy method, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) detection. This method is used to detect cancer cells in the blood and help cancer prognosis and treatment.
Focused ultrasound (FUS) thermal ablation can treat the target tumor without surgical incisions. One of the key FUS technologies is the development of FUS transducer. The article will describe the history of therapeutic ultrasound, fundamentals of FUS, design of the FUS transducer and introduction of FUS ablation system specific for treatment of breast tumor.
Kuan-Ju Wang, Wei-Siang Ciou, Tsung-Han Yang, Cheng-Bin Xu, Jia-Jin Jason Chen, Yi-Chun Du
According to statistics on the global market development trend of surgical robots, the current economic scale of surgical robots will increase to 13 billion U.S. dollars, showing its high development potential. On the other hand, according to a report from the World Health Organization (WHO), liver cancer is the second deadliest cancer in the world. How to preserve more livers during surgery to maintain life is a clinically important issue currently. At present, thermal ablation is one of the most suitable treatment methods for patients with tumors smaller than 2 cm or with multiple tumors. However, during the treatment, it is necessary to rely on preoperative analysis of Computed Tomography (CT), intraoperative machine vision and real-time ultrasound image analysis to assist the doctors in puncturing the correct position of liver tumor and performing thermal ablation. This surgical method is suitable for using navigation of robotic-assisted system to assist spatial positioning, and the system can also perform real-time ultrasound image analysis and information feedback of thermal ablation. In addition to an introduction to the navigation of robotic-assisted system, this article also takes the dual-arm robotic-assisted system of liver cancer thermal ablation as an example to introduce the required spatial positioning technology of machine vision, interactive robotic arm control and ultrasonic image feedback, etc., and will conduct a phantom experiment to show its results.
Chien-Hsiang Chang, Yu-Liang Kuo, Wei-Chih Lien, Peng-Ting Chen, Yang-Cheng Lin
Frailty is a common condition in the elderly population, which will increase the risk of falling and lead to other complications. However, the hospital is often overcrowded, causing a long time waiting, increasing the burden on their family, or arranging unsuitable treatments. These points make patients miss the best effect of the Acute Phase Rehabilitation. We propose a new rehabilitation service called “Intelligent Health Promotion Service System (IHPSS)” that enables patients to recuperate at home. Moreover, medical professionals can remotely arrange suitable rehabilitation treatments through this new service IHPSS. This IHPSS has three major goals. First, “Intelligentization” helps medical professionals evaluate the suitable treatment with AI. Second, “Gamification” adopts Nostalgic Games to increase patients’ rehabilitation motivation. Third, “Customization” customizes their specific treatment based on each individual case. This IHPSS uses the Somatosensory Interaction and Nostalgic Game to arouse elders' resonance, and then increase their rehabilitation motivation. The Intelligent Knee Orthosis can detect each muscle status during training and convert into data. And the Deep Learning can help medical professionals arrange patients the best rehabilitation plan. Meanwhile, the result is transmitted to their family members. This IHPSS provides a new rehabilitation service to reduce the burden of life for patients and their family members, and provides the most suitable rehabilitation treatment to achieve the goals of Ageing in Place, Healthy Ageing, and Active Ageing.
NARLabs i-ONE Competition The First Prize of 2021 in College and Above Level Group
Yi-En Chou, Yu-Hsuan Chen, Chieh Wang, Wei-Chung Wang, Po-Chi Sung